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印度首都水荒生乱象

时间:2019-07-31

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7月1日,在印度新德里,人们从水车取水。新华社/路透社

新华社北京7月8日电(记者田野)今年夏天,印度首都出现了罕见的干旱,气温高,雨量少。新德里的供水紧张,贫民窟居民正在遭受苦难,团伙犯罪和由于水引起的公共战斗正在增加。

印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪公开呼吁大规模节约用水。

穷人和穷人

今年6月是新德里26年来第二个最干旱的月份。 6月10日,气温为48摄氏度,成为自记录开始以来的最高温度。七月季风带来的降水比以前晚一周,降水量不大。

德里地区有2000万人口。据路透社报道,在严重干旱之后,居民的用水量显示了贫富差距。

在德里中心区,公司的政府雇员,议员和住宅区的高层雇员,市政管道供水几乎不受影响,每户每月的水费约为10至15美元。在旧城的贫民窟或郊区的破旧公寓楼,居民只能依靠水车供水,供应紧张,价格飙升。

印度的一些水资源专家近年来警告说,水库面临干燥,地下水位正在下降。然而,印度政府首次启动了大规模的节水活动。

电信公司的销售员Amar Nat Shukla一家五口住在德里南郊的一幢大楼里。他告诉路透社,700卢比(约合10美元)可以买一辆约2000升的水,以维持一周的家庭生活。一年前,这两辆车仅花费500卢比,水价飙升了40%,迫使他减少了一半的用水量。

至于饮用水,新德里的大多数中产阶级家庭要么使用净水器,要么从知名公司购买瓶装水。根据Euromonitor International的调查,2012年至2017年,印度的瓶装水量增加了三倍。

The sanitation of drinking water produced by some small factories is not up to standard, causing people in low-income groups to become sick due to unclean drinking water. Dilip Kumar Kamat, a 46-year-old resident, said: "Doctors have asked me to buy only bottled water, and the water of large, well-known companies."

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On July 1, in New Delhi, India, people took water from a water tanker. Xinhua News Agency/Reuters

Water disputes

In the capital region, the government and the military have a daily water supply of 375 liters per person, while in other regions there are only 40 liters per capita. The water supply is managed by the water department under the municipal government and is supplied by wells and water trucks.

The municipal government's water department has a total of 1,033 waterwheels, which is far from meeting the water needs of urban residents, and hundreds of private water trucks are illegally operating this summer. However, the government does not understand the specific figures of private water tankers. Some residents said that some private operators have joined forces with local gangs and politicians to control some wells. Those gangs have mastered private water trucks and operate illegally.

Government reports indicate that most private waterwheel operators in the Delhi area are either suspected of illegally collecting depleted groundwater or suspected of stealing government reserves. Nearly half of the water supply in the Delhi Water Department was either stolen through the leeway or was wasted due to pipeline leaks.

Water shortages are more severe in the northwestern part of Delhi. Due to the proximity of a landfill, the local villages and towns, the surface and groundwater resources are polluted, the toxicity is high, and it is not drinkable. The residents can only queue up for the government water tank to supply water once a day.

A local police officer told Reuters that "the fight triggered by water withdrawals has risen since May, and these water disputes now account for half of the daily reported cases." Three people lost their lives last year because of such disputes.

The British “Water Aid Organization” survey found that about 163 million people in India, or 12% of the total population, cannot get clean water near their homes.

xx德里官员希望能够穿过该市的亚穆纳河,声称要在上游建造三座水坝,以帮助首都克服水资源短缺问题。 S.K.中央水资源委员会官员哈达表示,大坝建设预计需要三到四年时间。

V.K. “水资源援助组织”负责人马德凡认为,印度对地下水的依赖和含水层的维护加剧了水资源短缺,而旧的公共用水概念则使水资源短缺。他说,私人家庭和工业用户大多直接取水,而水的再利用和循环用水在印度几乎是“阿拉伯之夜”。

在他看来,考虑到土地分配,住宅安置和环境恢复因素,政府雄心勃勃的大坝建设进度很难实现。

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